1 In the middle of the twentieth century, ‘An die Geliebte’ and ‘An die Nachtigall’ were scarcely discussed in the Schubert literature. For instance, there is no mention of either lied in Erich Deutsch’sOttoSchubert: A Documentary Biography, trans. Eric Blom (London: Dent, 1946) and Brown’sMaurice J.E.Schubert: A Critical Biography (London: MacMillan, 1958). However, Alfred Einstein speculated that ‘An die Nachtigall’ may be ‘the prototype of some of Hugo Wolf’s loveliest Mörike songs’; see his Schubert: A Musical Portrait (New York: Oxford University Press, 1951): 141. The fortunes of these lieder appear to have changed little by the century’s end, for there is no reference to either song in McKay’sElizabethFranz Schubert: A Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), Newbould’sBrianSchubert (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997), or Gibbs’ChristopherThe Life of Schubert (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Nevertheless, John Reed waxes enthusiastic: ‘The best-known of the Claudius songs is “Der Tod und das Mädchen” (Death and the Maiden) D531, but perhaps the finest of them is “An die Nachtigall” (To the Nightingale) D497, which evokes a new world of subjective feeling in its forty-one bars. The song begins off-key, borrowing a device already exploited a year earlier in “An die Geliebte” (To the Beloved) D303. At bar 22, the notes begin to dance with joy, and then to yearn with passionate longing … The major/minor exchanges here are much more than a traditional device. They seem to sum up the essence of the poetic experience of life. Perhaps here, for the first time, we become aware of the Innigkeit, the subjective feeling for the fragility of life and joy, which was to sustain a century of Romantic song’. See Reed, Schubert, rev. ed., (New York: Schirmer, 1997): 35–36.
2 Some of the relative anonymity of ‘An die Geliebte’ and ‘An die Nachtigall’ might be attributed to their belated publication. Deutsch reports that ‘An die Geliebte’ appeared in 1887 within the volume, Schubert Album: book 7, edited by Max Friedlaender and published by Peters in Leipzig, and that ‘An die Nachtigall’ appeared in 1829, when it was published by Diabelli in Vienna as the composer’s Op. 98, No. 1; see The Schubert Thematic Catalogue, by Otto Erich Deutsch in collaboration with Donald Wakeling (Mineola, NY: Dover, 1995 ): 134 and 221. For more, see BrownMaurice, ‘The Posthumous Publication of the Songs’, in his Essays on Schubert (London: Macmillan, 1966), 286 and 272.
3YouensSusan, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, in German Lieder in the Nineteenth Century, ed. Rufus Hallmark (New York: Schirmer Books, 1996): 52–54.
4Youens, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, 53.
5Youens, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, 53, 55. Robert Hatten describes Schubert’s treatment of his chosen texts as a dominative process in which lyric poems ‘inevitably concede something of their music to an appropriation by, and not merely a translation into, another artistic medium’; see Hatten, ‘A Surfeit of Musics: What Goethe’s Lyrics Concede when Set to Schubert’s Music’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review5/4 (2008): 7. See also Lorraine Byrne Bodley’s article, ‘In Pursuit of a Single Flame? On Schubert’s Settings of Goethe’s Poems’, elsewhere in this volume, which responds to Hatten’s earlier essay.
6 Schubert’s best-known instances of self-borrowings, including those involving the ‘Trout’ quintet, the ‘Death and the Maiden’ quartet and the ‘Wanderer’ fantasy, evoke and are informed by the songs on which they are based. However, it appears that the two lieder under consideration here represent a similar case within the composer’s vocal literature, where, in general, the products were not intended to replace their predecessors. In contrast, we should recall Schubert’s ‘Erlkönig’, which was written in 1815 and then revised three more times before it was published as his Op. 1 in 1821, the fourth version (D. 328) being the one that usually represents his masterpiece today. Thus, with ‘An die Geliebte’ and ‘An die Nachtigall’, it may be more appropriate to speak of ‘self-borrowing’ than ‘revision’, since both songs seem finished, distinct and successful – and both still exist.
7 Stoll had been a journalist and theatre director in Vienna. Shortly after his death in 1815, Schubert set three of Stoll’s poems, including ‘Lambertine’ (D. 301) and ‘Labetrank der Liebe’ (D. 302), as well as ‘An die Geliebte’ (D. 303).
8Youens, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, 53.
9 Of ‘An die Geliebte’, John Reed observes: ‘The autograph, now in ÖNB [Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna], is a first draft, dated 15 October 1815. There is a dated copy in the Witteczek-Spaun collection (Vienna, GdM [Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna]). The song was first published by Peters of Leipzig in 1887. The song was written, along with seven others, on the name day of Schubert’s first love, Therese Grob, so there is little doubt about the identity of ‘die Geliebte’. The curious thing is that a year later, in November 1816, he used the same musical idea as the basis for a much greater song, his setting of the Claudius poem ‘An die Nachtigall’ (D497). This too is a love song, and more personal in tone than ‘An die Geliebte’. A comparison of the two songs tells us more about the development of Schubert’s genius between October 1815 and November 1816 than about his love-life. For whereas ‘An die Geliebte’ is very singable, the Claudius song is a masterpiece, which uses the off-key opening to much better purpose’; see ReedJohn, The Schubert Song Companion (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997): 34.
10 Graham Johnson, taking note of John Reed’s observation that ‘An die Geliebte’ was one of eight songs composed on Grob’s name-day, concurs but cautions: ‘If he [Schubert] was inspired to a large creative outburst in her honour there is little doubt that it is she who is “die Geliebte”. On the other hand, the link with the name-day may simply be a coincidence: none of these songs was included in the Therese Grob songbook of the following year’. See Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, I (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014): 168.
11 Deutsch reports that Schubert confessed his love for Therese in a long letter to his friend Anton Holzapfel early in 1815 – which was lost – and that Holzapfel, in a reply – also lost – attempted to dissuade Schubert, speculating: ‘He [Schubert] does not seem to have given up hope of marrying Therese until three years later, and in 1820 she married the master baker Johann Bergman’. Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 45–6. For more of Holzapfel’s account, see DeutschOtto Erich, Schubert: Memoirs by His Friends, trans. Rosamund Ley and John Nowell (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1958): 60–62.
Deutsch adds that Schubert later discussed Therese with Anselm Hüttenbrenner, concluding: ‘If Hüttenbrenner’s recollections of 1858 (Vienna City Library), doubtless wrong in some details, are correct in this respect, Schubert was unable ever to forget Therese Grob, and finally renounced marriage on her account. The reason why she did not become his wife seems to have lain in his hopeless material circumstances at that time’; see Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 46.
12 Schubert composed a ‘Cantata for his Father’s Name-Day’ in 1813, and Deutsch asserted that at that time, name days were celebrated more than birthdays in the Catholic countries of central Europe; see Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 38. Thus, there is a clear precedent for the motivation of Schubert’s creativity by a loved one’s name day. In the calendar of saints, 15 October is dedicated to St Teresa of Ávila, and it was celebrated as the name day of Therese Grob.
13 Rita Steblin has offered evidence to suggest that ‘although Schubert confessed his love for Therese to several close friends, Therese herself may have been unaware of the extent of this love until after the appearance of Kreißle’s biography in 1865’; see Steblin, ‘Schubert’s Beloved Singer Therese Grob: New Documentary Research’, Schubert durch die Brille29 (2002): 55–100, specifically p. 81. I thank Christopher Gibbs regarding this resource.
14 Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 43–4.
15SteblinRita, ‘Franz Schubert und das Ehe-Consens Gesetz von 1815’, Schubert durch die Brille9 (1992): 32–42.
16 The controversy regarding Schubert’s sexuality need not be revived here, nor will it be settled here, but some readers may wish to consider some of its exchanges as context for the present essay. See: SolomonMaynard, ‘Franz Schubert and the Peacocks of Benvenuto Cellini’, 19th Century Music12/3 (1989): 193–206; SteblinRita, ‘The Peacock’s Tale: Schubert’s Sexuality Reconsidered’, 19th Century Music17/1 (1993): 5–33; SolomonMaynard, ‘Schubert: Some Consequences of Nostalgia’, 19th Century Music17/1 (1993): 34–46; AgawuVictor Kofi, ‘Schubert’s Sexuality: A Prescription for Analysis?’, 19th Century Music17/1 (1993): 79–82; McClarySusan, ‘Music and Sexuality: On the Steblin/Solomon Debate’, 19th Century Music17/1 (1993): 83–88; WebsterJames, ‘Music, Pathology, Sexuality, Beethoven, Schubert’, 19th Century Music17/1 (1993): 89–93. More recently, Steblin’sRita article, ‘In Defense of Scholarship and Archival Research: Why Schubert’s Brothers were Allowed to Marry’, Current Musicology62 (1998): 7–17, directly and convincingly answers a question posed earlier by Maynard Solomon in his article, ‘Schubert: Some Consequences of Nostalgia’, while her chapter, ‘Schubert’s Problematic Relationship with Johann Mayrhofer: New Documentary Evidence’, in Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman, ed. Barbara Haggh (Turnhout, BE: Brepols, 2001), 465–95, addresses presumptions and misconceptions regarding Schubert’s friend. I thank an anonymous peer reviewer of this essay for the encouragement to include these references here, as well as other kind suggestions for improvement.
17 During 1816, after the composition of ‘An die Geliebte’ and before the composition of ‘An die Nachtigall’, Schubert assembled a set of 17 songs, known today as the ‘Therese Grob Songbook’, which he gave to his friend Heinrich Grob (1800–1855), who was Therese’s younger brother and a cellist with whom Schubert collaborated. For an introduction to this music, see BrownMaurice J.E., ‘The Therese Grob Collection of Songs by Schubert’ Music and Letters49/2 (1968): 122–134. Rita Steblin concludes her recent essay on Therese with these words: ‘I still think that this collection was intended indirectly for Therese … Many of Schubert’s friends courted and married each other’s sisters, a common practice in the Biedermeier era. Perhaps Schubert was hoping to win Therese’s heart by forming a closer friendship with her brother. Thus, he may have given these songs to Heinrich, perhaps assuming that they would end up in Therese’s possession’. See Steblin, ‘Schubert’s Beloved Singer Therese Grob: New Documentary Research’, 99. If this album was meant to sustain Schubert’s presence in the Grob home when he was not there, the earlier ‘An die Geliebte’ may have been intended as a more pointed and purposeful message.
18 ‘An die Geliebte’ belongs to an extraordinarily productive period in Schubert’s life, for 142 songs issued from his pen in 1815, a year often referred to as his annus mirabilis, see Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, III, p. 819. Among those composed that year were ‘Heidenröslein’, ‘Erlkönig’ and ‘Erster Verlust’ (discussed by Lorraine Byrne Bodley elsewhere in this volume).
19 An anonymous reader of this paper pointed out that C major and A minor are briefly tonicized by harmonic sequences that descend by thirds, which are most evident in the bass (C/E–G7/D–C, and Am/C–E7/B–Am, respectively) of the opening bars. The second of these reinforces the suggestion of C as the controlling tonality of the opening of the song, representing its relative minor. Other juxtapositions of the C major/A minor pairing appear in bars 10–11 and 19–20.
20 The pitch sequence G4–F♮4–E4–D4 in bars 26–28 recall the pitches G5–F♮5–E5–D5 heard earlier on the downbeats of bars 1–4, and thus prepare for their imminent return in the second strophe.
21 Robert Hatten discusses a more elaborate tonal vacillation involving F minor and A-flat major in Schubert’s ‘Erster Verlust’ (D. 226, 1815), composed over a year before ‘An die Nachtigall’. See Hatten, ‘A Surfeit of Musics’, 15–16. I thank Lorraine Byrne Bodley for reminding me of this passage and reference.
22 Contemporary listeners acquainted with the richly allusive harmony of Fryderyk Chopin, Robert Schumann and Gabriel Fauré, as well as the great range of twentieth-century idioms, may not find Schubert’s ‘An die Geliebte’ disquieting, but in 1815, and particularly within lieder composition at the time, clear tonal orientation at the outset of a song was the norm. Of course, the anticipation elicited by Schubert’s setting is not without precedent in the vocal domain, for it is quite typical of operatic recitatives, which commonly facilitate key changes and effect shifts of focus, but here it calls attention to a composer seeking to expand the nature of a genre. Indeed, what occurs in Schubert’s ‘An die Geliebte’ is rather unconventional with respect to the era’s lieder, as a comparison with Ludwig van Beethoven’s setting of the very same text – his own ‘An die Geliebte’, WoO 140 (1811) – demonstrates. In this regard, Graham Johnson puts it well: ‘In this instance, it is clear that Schubert was not in the slightest influenced by his great contemporary’; see Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, I, 169.
23 For more on the concept of precursive prolongation, see SobaskieJames William, ‘Tonal Implication and the Gestural Dialectic in Schubert’s A Minor String Quartet’, in Schubert the Progressive, ed. Brian Newbould (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000): 56–62; SobaskieJames William, ‘The ‘Problem’ of Schubert’s String Quintet’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review2/1 (2005): 84–86; and especially SobaskieJames William, ‘Precursive Prolongation in the Préludes of Chopin’, Journal of the Society for Musicology in Ireland 3 (2007–08): 25–61 (www.music.ucc.ie/jsmi/index.php/jsmi/issue/view/5), where the concept’s theoretical bases are established and its analytic utility is demonstrated. Precursive prolongations include melodic prefixes like appoggiaturas, and harmonic prefixes like applied dominants, but also extended contrapuntal-harmonic passages and pieces – like Schubert’s song – which sometimes are described as auxiliary cadences. However, the concept of precursive prolongation avoids inherent weaknesses within the auxiliary cadence idea, while remaining fully congruent with Schenkerian theory. It does so by drawing upon the principles of structural levels, voice leading and diminution, and by emphasizing the obvious prefixial and anticipatory nature of these structures, rather than regarding them as instances of harmonic patterns that have been hypothetically ‘transferred’ from higher structural levels and ‘abbreviated’; see Sobaskie, ‘Precursive Prolongation in the Préludes of Chopin’, 36–9, for a formal definition of this concept.
24 Several other songs composed around the time of ‘An die Geliebte’ suggest that Schubert may have been fascinated with the expressive potential of precursive prolongations. For instance, his ‘Nähe des Geliebten’ (‘Nearness of the beloved’; 1815; D. 162) initially alludes to E-flat minor and delays confirmation of tonic G-flat major until the end of the second phrase. Two of the songs from the ‘Therese Grob Songbook’, Klage (‘Lament’; 1816; D. 415) and ‘Edone’ (‘Edone’; 1816; D. 445) reverse that pattern; in the former, F major appears to hold sway for 19 bars before it is supplanted by D minor in the last ten bars, while in the latter, E-flat major and C minor appear to alternate for the first 31 bars until C minor finally wrests control in the last six. Yet perhaps the most charming instance from this era must be ‘An den Schlaf’ (‘To sleep’; 1816; D. 447), where first-inversion tonic harmonies repeatedly give way to dominants, which, in turn, continuously evade a satisfying resolution to tonic A major until the very last sung word – ‘Glück’ – to add poignancy to the plea of one asking for sleep to come and assuage his lost happiness. All may be interpreted as precursive prolongations, and, taken together, seem to reveal an artist interested in eliciting and manipulating expectation for engaging and expressive effects. Schubert’s ‘Dass sie hier gewesen’ (‘That she has been here’; 1823?; D. 775), perhaps the most remarkable instance of precursive prolongation in his œuvre, represents a continuation and a culmination of this pursuit of poetic allusiveness within his musical fabrics.
25 The voice’s D5 prolongs the effect of the preceding F5, which is contextually superior.
26 Schubert’s appropriations often intensify, enrich and sometimes even swerve from his poet’s original expressive message. However, in a recent essay, Susan Youens has illuminated a remarkable instance in Schubert’s ‘Der Einsame’ (1825; D. 800) where ‘a composer conducts a quarrel with a poet’s ideas from within his or her musical setting’; see YouensSusan, ‘The Grit in the Oyster, or How to Quarrel with a Poet’, in Words and Notes in the Long Nineteenth Century, ed. Phyllis Weliver and Katherine Ellis (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2013): 206. In this light, Schubert’s nuanced setting of ‘An die Geliebte’ may be seen as a specimen of persuasion, albeit more seductive than argumentative.
27 See JohnsonGraham, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, I, 168.
28 Graham Johnson observes: ‘This [‘An die Nachtigall’] is one of the finest songs of 1816: brevity, classical poise and restraint are suffused with achingly beautiful intimations of the Romantic era. The song opens in unconventional fashion in the subdominant, C major. This had already been tried by Schubert a year before in the Stoll setting ‘An die Geliebte’ D303; indeed Schubert liked the opening of that song so much that here he unashamedly borrows from himself, something that was far from his usual practice’. See Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, I, 180. While the notation of these two opening passages is not exactly the same, and both songs remained unpublished until after the composer’s death, one senses – particularly given the characters of the two songs, as well as Schubert’s ‘usual practice’, as Johnson puts it – that ‘An die Nachtigall’ does not so much rescue material from ‘An die Geliebte’ but revisits it from a new perspective.
29 Schubert set 14 poems of Matthias Claudius (1740–1815) between 1815 and 1817, perhaps the best known of which is ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen’ (1817; D. 531). Reed reports that Claudius’s poem ‘An die Nachtigall’ dates from 1771; see Reed, The Schubert Song Companion, 37. Regarding the fifth line of the lied, Graham Johnson indicates that the poet’s original text read ‘Nachtigall, Nachtigall, ach’; Schubert’s insertion of the first ‘Ach’ certainly adds rhythmic balance as it extends the musical phrase, but also intensifies its expression of pain. See Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, I, p. 180, fn1.
30 Schubert composed another song by the name of ‘An die Nachtigall’, set to the words of Ludwig Hölty, on 22 May 1815, and like the lied under consideration here, the text of his D. 196 includes a plea to the nightingale for quiet. However, unlike it, the earlier song manifests no emergent narrative or shifting interiority, but focuses on the memory of lost love elicited by the bird’s sweet song that frustrates sleep.
31Youens, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, 54. ‘Amor’ is a poetic reference to and alternative name for Eros, the male Greek god of love.
32 The association of the nightingale with tragedy and transformation may be traced to the story of Philomela and Procne, which is told in Book VI of Ovid’s Metamorphoses (8 CE), yet may originate in a much earlier lost play of Sophocles dating from the fifth century BCE. Philomela, after violation and mutilation by her sister’s husband, King Tereus, gains a measure of revenge with Procne’s help and escapes the king’s wrath through prayer to the gods, who change her into a nightingale. Since antiquity, the nightingale has appeared frequently in Western literature, its song linked to beauty as well as fatality, as John Keats’ ‘Ode to a nightingale’ (1819) and Oscar Wilde’s ‘The Nightingale and the Rose’ (1888) demonstrate.
33Youens, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, 54.
34Youens, ‘Franz Schubert: The Prince of Song’, 54–55.
35 Susan Wollenberg reviews the literature on modal interchange and offers new insights on the technique in her book, Schubert’s Fingerprints: Studies in the Instrumental Works (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011): 15–46.
36 The last six of these invert the minor seventh interval to a major second.
37 Robert Hatten describes cadential six-four sonorities like this as ‘arrival six-fours’; see HattenRobert S., Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994): 15 and 97, as well as Robert S. Hatten, Interpreting Musical Gestures, Topics and Tropes: Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004): 24–8. Following the preceding span in the parallel minor, the augmented-sixth chord of bar 35 initiates a minor-to-major transformation, not unlike that of a Picardy third, and creates the effect of a breakthrough, an arrival in a fresh, new state of being, when the six-four sonority sounds in bar 36. Context is everything in a brief lied like this, and such familiar voice-leading events, which otherwise might be overlooked, can convey a lot – here, in context, this construction communicates impressions of transformation and transcendence. Of the instance in ‘An die Nachtigall’, Robert Hatten told me: ‘This is an example in which the rhetorical effect of arrival and the syntactic effect of a cadential 6/4 resolving immediately to V are in balance, and thus the arrival 6/4 effect is likely to be missed by theories of tonal syntax alone’.
38 My research into Schubert’s late music reveals a pursuit of coherence within and among separate pieces via contextual musical processes. See Sobaskie, ‘Tonal Implication and the Gestural Dialectic’; SobaskieJames William, ‘A Balance Struck: Gesture, Form, and Drama in Schubert’s E flat Major Piano Trio’, in Le style instrumental de Schubert: sources, analyse, contexte, évolution, ed. Xavier Hascher (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2007): 115–146; SobaskieJames William, ‘The “Problem” of Schubert’s String Quintet’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review2/1 (2005): 57–92. ‘An die Geliebte’ and ‘An die Nachtigall’ would seem to suggest that Schubert’s quest for binding separate pieces certainly started earlier.
39 See Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 52–6, 58–60, 66–70. Laibach, now called Ljubljana, was part of the Austrian empire in Schubert’s day; today it is the capitol of Slovenia.
40 It appears that the decision to award the position to another candidate had been taken on 20 August 1816 and that applicants were to be informed by 7 September by the Civic Guard of Vienna. A diary entry by Johann Mayrhofer on 7 September that reads: ‘Schubert and several friends are to come to me to-day, and the fogs of the present time, which is somewhat leaden, shall be lifted by his melodies’, suggests the composer already knew he did not get the job. See Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 69–70.
41 Full of random reflections, Schubert’s diary entry for 8 September 1816 contains such telling statements as ‘Man resembles a ball, to be played with by chance and passion … Happy he who finds a true man-friend. Happier still he who finds a true friend in his wife. To a free man matrimony is a terrifying thought in these days: he exchanges it either for melancholy or for crude sensuality. Monarchs of to-day, you see this and are silent. Or do you not see it? If so, O God, shroud our senses and feelings in numbness; yet take back the veil again one day without lasting harm … To be noble and unhappy is to feel the full depths of misfortune and happiness, just as to be noble and happy is to feel happiness and misfortune’. See Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 70–71.
42 Anselm Hüttenbrenner (1794–1868) sent Franz Liszt some memories of Schubert around 1854, which included recollected statements from a conversation with the composer. According to Hüttenbrenner, Schubert told him: ‘I loved someone very dearly and she loved me too. She was a schoolmaster’s daughter, somewhat younger than myself and in a Mass, which I composed, she sang the soprano solos most beautifully and with great feeling … For three years she hoped I would marry her; but I could not find a position which would have provided for us both. She then bowed to her parents’ wishes and married someone else, which hurt me very much. I still love her and there has been no one else since who has appealed to me as much or more than she. She was just not meant for me’. See Deutsch, Schubert: Memoirs by His Friends, 182. While Hüttenbrenner committed these words to paper over a quarter-century after Schubert’s death, bearing errors of fact (Therese’s father had passed away in 1804 and his widow continued to run the family silk factory near the Lichtental Church in what is now the northern part of Vienna), they do seem to suggest that Schubert had resigned himself to his loss; see Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, 47.
43 My research on Schubert’s late instrumental and sacred choral music suggests that under the duress of his chronic illness, some of the masterworks of his final years may have arisen through retreat into the refuge of his creative imagination, where alternative and transcendental realities could exist, and where present circumstances did not intrude. See SobaskieJames William, ‘Schubert’s Self-Elegies’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review5/2 (2008): 71–105, as well as SobaskieJames William, ‘Contextual Processes in Schubert’s Late Sacred Choral Music’, in Rethinking Schubert Rethinking Schubert, ed. Lorraine Byrne Bodley and Julian Horton (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming). If Schubert sought solace within imaginal realms later in life during times of distress, why not earlier, when it became clear that his relationship with Therese would not become what he had hoped?
Graham Johnson makes a similar point in his commentary on Die schöne Müllerin: ‘Alone and terminally ill, Schubert had to face the stark realities of the future as he worked on this cycle … He had no psychiatrist to whom he could pour out his problems, but he had the self-preserving instincts given to the greatest of artists: Schubert did not drown himself and he kept his talents not only intact but more finely honed than ever before … In writing Die schöne Müllerin the composer was in effect his own psychiatrist; he worked through his problems by transferring his disappointments and grief on to the shoulders of the young miller’. See Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, II, p. 885.
44 I thank Lorraine Byrne Bodley for sharing this thought with me.
45 In her essay, ‘In Pursuit of a Single Flame? On Schubert’s Settings of Goethe’s Poems’, elsewhere in this volume, Lorraine Byrne Bodley explores ways in which Schubert’s appropriations of poetic content may have produced results that depart significantly from the intentions of the poet and allow for different interpretations, depending on perspective.
46 Of ‘An die Nachtigall’, John Reed attests: ‘The song was published in July 1829 as op. 98 no. 1 by Diabelli. The opus number may have been assigned by Schubert himself’. See Reed, The Schubert Song Companion, 37. Schubert’s Op. 97, the sacred song ‘Glaube, Hoffnung und Liebe’, composed to a text by Christoff Kuffner, appeared on 6 October 1828, six weeks before the composer died, so it is possible that he even had had an opportunity to examine the proof of ‘An die Nachtigall’, as Graham Johnson suggests; see Johnson, Franz Schubert: The Complete Songs, II, 474–475.
47 See Kramer’sRichardDistant Cycles: Schubert and the Conceiving of Song (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994).
48 ‘Dramatic Implications of Contextual Processes in Two Serenades of Schubert’, in Drama in the Music of Franz Schubert, ed. Joe Davies and James Sobaskie (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, forthcoming).
Born, March 25, 1947; attended schools in Yonkers, New York and Ardsley, New York; private study: piano-14 years, clarinet-10 years.
Columbia University, New York City: B.A. (cum laude), 1969.
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey: M.F.A., 1971; Ph.D., 1975.
Honors and Awards
Woodrow Wilson Fellow, 1969-70.
Fulbright Student Grant (Italy), 1972-73.
N.E.H. Summer Stipend, 1978.
Grant from the American Philosophical Society, 1980.
Fellowship from the Leopold Schepp Foundation used in conjunction with an appointment as Fellow of the Villa I Tatti (the Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies), 1982-83.
American Council of Learned Societies Grant-in-Aid, 1985.
Andrew Mellon Foundation Grant, 1985.
Grant from the American Philosophical Society, 1992.
Palestrina Prize awarded by the Lions Club of Palestrina, Italy, 1992.
In conjunction with the XLVIe Colloque International d’Études Humanistes: La Papauté à la Renaissance held at the Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance, Tours, France, 30 June-4 July 2003, awardedLa Médaille de la Ville de Tours (The Medal of the City of Tours) awarded by the City of Tours, France, in recognition of his scholarly contributions to the history of music in the renaissance.
Smith College, Northampton, MA: Caroline L. Wall ’27 Professor, 2000-
Yale University, New Haven, CT: Visiting Professor, 1990.
Smith College, Northampton, MA: Professor, 1986-2000
Smith College, Northampton, MA: Associate Professor, 1980-1986.
Smith College, Northampton, MA: Assistant Professor, 1975-80.
University of Wisconsin, Madison: Visiting Lecturer, 1974-75.
University of California, Los Angeles: Lecturer, 1973-74.
Princeton University: Teaching Assistant, 1972.
“The Papal Chapel ca. 1492-1513 and its Polyphonic Sources," Princeton, 1975.
Papal Music Manuscripts in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries, Renaissance Manuscript Studies 5 (Neuhausen: Hänssler-Verlag, 1996)
Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome (ed.) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). Reviewed in: Music and Letters 81 (2000): 284-287; Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 57 (2000):; Journal of the American Musicological Society 54 (2001): 368-373.
Music and Musicians in Renaissance Rome and Other Courts, Variorum Collected Studies Series (Aldershot UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 1999). Reviewed in: Early Music 28 (2000): 117; Sixteenth Century Journal 31 (2000): 801-802
The Josquin Companion (ed.) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). Reviewed in: Times Literary Supplement, September 2001: 19; Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 58(2002): 819-822; Journal of the American Musicological Society 55 (2002): 155-165.
1. "Un document sur Guillaume Tessier," Revue de Musicologie 59 (1973): 105-06.
2. "New Archival Data Concerning the Chapel of Clement VII," Journal of the American Musicological Society 29 (1976): 472-78.
3. Contribution to the Workshop on Josquin's Masses in Josquin des Prez: Proceedings of the International Josquin Festival-Conference, edited by Edward E. Lowinsky (London, 1976), pp. 712-17.
4. "Notes on Two Roman Manuscripts of the Early Sixteenth Century," The Musical Quarterly 63 (1977): 48-73.
5. "The Publications of Guglielmo Gonzaga," Journal of the American Musicological Society 31 (1978): 118-25.
6. "From the Diary of a 16th-Century Papal Singer," Current Musicology 25 (1978): 83-98.
7. "Guglielmo Gonzaga and the Castrati," Renaissance Quarterly 33 (1980): 33-56.
8. "Schubert, Sullivan and Grove," The Musical Times 121, no. 1650 (August, 1980): 499-500.
9. Articles on Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance topics in The New Grove (London, 1980).
10."A Note on the Biography of Juan del Encina," Bulletin of the Comediantes 34 (1982): 159-172.
11."The Singers of the Papal Chapel and Liturgical Ceremonies in the Early Sixteenth Century: Some Documentary Evidence," in Rome in the Renaissance, the City and the Myth, edited by P.A. Ramsey (Binghamton, 1982), pp. 249-264.
12."A New Document Concerning Raphael's Portrait of Leo X," The Burlington Magazine 125, no. 958 (January, 1983): 31-32.
13."Notes on Some Papal Documents in Paris," Studi Musicali 12 (1983): 5-16.
14."A Letter from Paolo Animuccia: A Composer's Response to the Council of Trent," Early Music 12 (1984): 74-78.
15."Verdelot in Florence, Coppini in Rome, and the Singer `La Fiore'," Journal of the American Musicological Society 37 (1984): 402-411.
16."Mecenatismo Musicale a Mantova: Le Nozze di Vincenzo Gonzaga e Margherita Farnese," Rivista Italiana di Musicologia 19 (1984): 3-20.
17."Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, as a Patron of Music," in Renaissance Studies in Honor of Craig Hugh Smyth, edited by Piero Morselli et. al. (Florence, 1985), pp. 627-38.
18."The Diary of the Papal Singer Giovanni Antonio Merlo," Analecta Musicologica 23 (1985): 75-128.
19."Mass," "Parody Mass," "Paraphrase," "Requiem," in The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, edited by Don Randall (Cambridge, MA, 1986).
20."The Medici Coat of Arms in a Motet for Leo X," Early Music 15 (1987): 31-35.
21."Performance Practice in the Papal Chapel in the 16th Century," Early Music 15 (1987): 453-62.
22."The Membership of the Chapels of Louis XII and Anne de Bretagne in the Years Preceding their Deaths," The Journal of Musicology 6 (1988): 60-82.
23."Illibata dei virgo nutrix and Josquin's Roman Style," Journal of the American Musicological Society 41 (1988): 434-64.
24."Josquin's Missa Pange Lingua: a Note on Agnus Dei III," Early Music 18 (1990): 271-75.
25."The Relationship between a Vatican Source of the Gloria of Josquin's Missa de Beata Virgine and Petrucci's Print," in Angelo Pompilio, et. al. eds., Atti del XIV Congresso della SocietàInternazionale di Musicologia (Bologna, 1990), vol. II, pp. 266-71.
26."The Performance of Josquin's L'Homme armé Masses," Early Music 19 (1991): 261-68.
27."A Canon, A Choirboy, and Homosexuality in Late Sixteenth-Century Italy: A Case Study," Journal of Homosexuality 21 (1991): 1-22.
28."The Performance of Chant in the Renaissance and its Interactions with Polyphony," in Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony, edited by Thomas Kelly (Cambridge England, 1992), pp. 178-208.
29."Tempo to 1500," in Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music, edited by Tess Knighton and David Fallows (London, 1992), pp. 327-336.
30."The `Spanish Nation' in the Papal Chapel, 1492-1521," Early Music 20 (1992): 601-610.
31."Music and the Renaissance Papacy: The Papal Choir and the Fondo Cappella Sistina," in Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library and Renaissance Culture, edited by Anthony Grafton (Washington D. C., 1993), pp. 199-224.
32."Competence and Incompetence in the Papal Choir in the Age of Palestrina," Early Music 22 (1994): 606-629.
33."A Biographical Miscellany: Josquin, Tinctoris, Obrecht, Brumel," in Musicologica Humana: Studies in Honor of Warren and Ursula Kirkendale, edited by Siegfried Gmeinwieser et. al. (Florence, 1994), pp.65-74.
34."Speculations on Repertory, Performance Practice, and Ceremony in the Papal Chapel in the Early Sixteenth Century," in Studien zur Geschichte der päpstlichen Kapelle: Tagungsbericht Heidelberg 1989, Capellae Apostolicae Sixtinaeque Collectanea Acta Monumenta, Collectanea II, edited by Bernhard Janz (Vatican City, 1994), pp. 103-122.
35."Questions Concerning Instrumental Ensemble Music in Sacred Contexts in the Early Sixteenth Century," in Le Concert des voix et des instruments àla Renaissance, edited by Jean-Michel Vaccaro (Paris, 1995), pp. 145-156.
36."Notes on the Biography and Music of Bertrandus Vaqueras (ca. 1450-1507)," in Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Eine Festschrift für Ludwig Finscher, edited by Annegrit Laubenthal (Kassel, 1995), pp. 111-122.
37.“Conflicting Levels of Meaning and Understanding in Josquin’s O admirabile commercium Motet Cycle,’ in Hearing the Motet: Essays on the Motet of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, edited by Dolores Pesce (New York, 1997), pp. 193-212.
38.“Ceremonies for Holy Week, Papal Commissions, and Madness (?) in Early Sixteenth-Century Rome,” in Music in Renaissance Cities and Courts: Studies in Honor of Lewis Lockwood, edited by Jessie Ann Owens and Anthony M. Cummings, Detroit Monographs in Musicology/Studies in Music, No. 18 (Warren, 1997), pp. 391-403.
39.“Guillaume-Gabriel Nivers and his Editions (and Recompositions) of Chant ‘pour les dames religieuses,” in Plain-chant et liturgie en France au XVIIe siècle,” edited by Jean Duron (Versailles, 1997), pp. 189-212.
40.“A Curious Incident in the History of the Papal Choir,” in Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome, edited by Richard Sherr (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 187-212.
41.“Music at the Cathedral of Bourges in the time of Ockeghem,” in Johannes Ockeghem: Actes du XLe Colloque internationale d’études humanistes, Tours, 3-8 février 1997, edited by Philippe Vendrix, Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance, Collection “Epitome musical” ([Paris]: Editions Klincksieck, 1998), pp. 173-219.
42.“Music: Sacred Vocal Music” and “Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da” in Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, edited by Paul F. Grendler, et. al., 6 volumes (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1999).
43.Numerous Articles in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2000)
44.“Beausseron”, “Bernoneau, Hillaire”, “Bruhier, Antoine”, “Busnoys, Antoine”, “Carpentras [Elzéar Genet]”, “Causin, Arnould”, “Cortesi, Paolo” , “Hillanis, Johannes”,“Danckerts, Ghiselin”, “Le Bel, Firmin”, in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 2nd edition, edited by Ludwig Finscher (Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag, 1999-), Personenteil, Band 2, 3, 4, 5, 10.
45.Introduction, Chapters 2, 7, 8, 11, 14, in The Josquin Companion, edited by Richard Sherr (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
46.“Josquin’s Red Nose,” in Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman, edited by Barbara Haggh, Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance: Collection “Epitome musical”, 8 (Paris-Tours: Minerve, 2001), pp. 209-240.
47.“Impiegati dello Stato: Three Episodes in the Financial Life of the Papal Singers in the 16th Century,” in Bianca Maria Antolini e Teresa Gialdroni , eds., "Et facciam dolçi canti". Studi in onore di Agostino Ziino in occasione del suo 65° compleanno(Lucca: LIM-Libreria Musicale Italiana di Lucca, 2004), pp. 279-289.
48.“Clement VII and the Golden Age of the Papal Choir,” in Kenneth Gouwens and Sheryl E. Reiss, eds. The Pontificate of Clement VII: History, Politics, Culture (Hampshire UK: Ashgate, 2005), pp. 227-250.
49.“Petrucci and the Problem of “Planxit autem David,” in Giulio Cattin and Patrizia dalla Vecchia, eds. Venezia 1501: Petrucci e la stampa musicale, Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi, Venezia, Palazzo Giustinian Lolin, 10-13 ottobre 2001 (Venice: Fondazione Levi, 2005), pp. 351-373.
1. The Cappella Giulia Chansonnier by Allan Atlas, in Journal of the American Musicological Society 31 (1978): 510-16.
2. Music in the Renaissance by Howard Mayer Brown, in Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 36 (1979); 351-52.
3. The Mellon Chansonnier edited by Leeman Perkins and Howard Garey, in Notes 36 (1979): 351-52.
4. Die Messen Heinrich Isaacs by Martin Staehelin, in Journal of the American Musicological Society 34 (1981): 144-49.
5. Johannes Lupi: Musicae Cantiones (1542) edited by Bonnie J. Blackburn, in Early Music 10 (1982): 379-80.
6. Arthur Sullivan: A Victorian Musician by Arthur Jacobs, in Journal of the American Musicological Society 38 (1985): 637-42.
7. The Madrigal at Ferrara by Anthony Newcomb, Music and Patronage in Sixteenth-Century Mantua by Iain Fenlon, Music in Renaissance Ferraraby Lewis Lockwood, in Rivista Italiana di Musicologia 22 (1987): 310-21.
8. The Italian Madrigal in the Early Sixteenth Century: Sources and Interpretation by Iain Fenlon and James Haar, in Early Music 18 (1990): 289-91.
9. The Florentine Camerata: Documentary Studies and Translations by Claude V. Palisca, in Sixteenth Century Journal 21 (1990): 729-30.
10.Altro Polo: Essays on Italian Music in the Cinquecento edited by Richard Charteris, in The Journal of Musicological Research 12 Supplement (1992): 23S-27S.
11.Studies in the History of Italian Music and Music Theory by Claude Palisca, in Sixteenth Century Journal 26 (1995):429-30.
12.Born for the Muses: The Life and Masses of Jacob Obrecht by Rob C. Wegman, in Journal of the Royal Musical Association 121 (1996): 105-116.
13.Iconografia Palestriniana: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: Immagini e Documenti del suo Tempo by Lino Bianchi, Giancarlo Rostirolla et. al. in Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 53 (1996): 66-67.
14.Palestrina: Nella vita, nelle opere, nel suo tempo by Lino Bianchi in Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 56 (1999), 397-399.
15.Der Fondo Cappella Sistina der Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana: Studien zur Geschichte des Bestandes by Bernhard Janz in Music and Letters82 (2001): 293-298
16.Bonfire Songs: Savonarola’s Musical Legacy, by Patrick Macey, in Journal of the American Musicological Society 55 (2002): 525-532.
Bertrandi Vaqueras: Opera Omnia, Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae, 78. American Institute of Musicology. Stuttgart, 1979.
General Editor of Sixteenth-Century Motet, a series (30 volumes) of transcriptions of motets of the 16th century (New York, 1987-2000). I edited the following volumes myself.
1. Giovanni Lucario: Concentuum qui vulgo motetta nuncupantur liber primus, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 22 (New York, 1987).
2. Vincenzo Ruffo: Il primo libro di motetti a cinque voci, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 19 (New York, 1988).
3. Vincenzo Ruffo: Motetti a sei voci, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 20 (New York, 1988).
4. Selections from Bologna, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, MS Q 19 ("Rusconi Codex")I, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 6 (New York, 1989).
5. Selections from Bologna, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, MS Q 19 ("Rusconi Codex") II, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 7 (New York, 1989).
6. Ernoul Causin: Motectorum . . . liber primus cum quinque vocibus (Venice, 1548), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 23 (New York, 1989).
7. Selections from Bologna, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, MS Q20, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 8 (New York, 1990).
8. Guglielmo Gonzaga, Sacrae cantiones quinque vocum (Venice, 1583): Two Motets from Milan, Biblioteca del Conservatorio "Giuseppe Verdi," MS Santa Barbara 8, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 28 (New York, 1990).
9. Selections from Motetti A numero trentatre (Venice, 1502), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 1 (New York, 1991).
10.Selections from Motetti C (Venice, 1504), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 2 (New York, 1991).
11.Selections from Motetti Libro Quarto (Venice, 1505), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 3 (New York, 1991).
12.Selections from Motetti de la corona [Libro Primo] (Fossombrone, 1514), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 4 (New York, 1991).
13.Selections from Motetti de la corona [Libro Secundo] (Fossombrone, 1519); Motetti de la corona [Libro Tertio] (Fossombrone, 1519); Motetti de la corona [Libro Quarto] (Fossombrone, 1519), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 5 (New York, 1992).
14.Jacopo Corfini: Il Secondo Libro de Motetti a 5, 6, 7, 8, X, XII Voci (Venice: Gardane, 1581), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 27 (New York, 1993).
15.Helysei Gibelli Musici Excellentissimi Motetta Super Plano Cantu cum Quinque Vocibus et in Festis Solennibus Decanenda Liber Primus (Venice: s.n., 1546), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 21 (New York, 1993).
16.Di Baldessara Donata Maestro di Capella della Serenissima Signoria di Venetia in San Marco Il Primo Libro de Motetti a Cinque, a Sei, et Otto Voci Novamenta Composti, & dati in luci (Venice: Gardano, 1599), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 30 (New York, 1994).
17.Ioannis Contini Ecclesiae Cathedralis Brixiae Magistri Modulationum Quinque Vocum Liber Primus (Venice: Scotto, 1560), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 25 (New York, 1994).
18.The Susato Motet Anthologies: Liber Quintus Ecclesiasticarum Cantionum, Liber Sextus Ecclesiasticarum Cantionum (Antwerp, 1553), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 15 (New York, 1995).
19.The Susato Motet Anthologies: Liber Septimus Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1553); Liber Octavus Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1553), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 16 (New York, 1995).
20.Girolamo Carli: Motetti del Laberinto Libro primo a cinque Voci . . . (Venice: Girolamo Scotto, 1554), Sixteenth Century Motet, vol. 24 (New York, 1995).
21.The Susato Motet Anthologies: Liber Nonus Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1554); Liber Decimus Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1555), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 17 (New York, 1996).
22.The Susato Motet Anthologies: Liber Undecimus Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1555); Liber Duodecimus Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1557); Liber XIII [sic] Ecclesiasticarum cantionum quinque vocum . . . (Antwerp: Susato, 1557), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 18 (New York, 1997).
23.Iulii Ciccarelli Iulianensis Sacrae Cantiones Vulgo Motetta appelatae cum quinque vocibus, tum organo, tum omni instrumentorum genere cantatu commodissimae, cum quibusdam in fine qutuor vocibus decantandis (Venice: Scotto, 1568), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 26 (New York, 1997).
24.Cesaris Tudini Canonici & Musici Cathedralis Ecclesiae Adriensis Mottetorum Quinque Vocibus Liber Primus (Venice: Vincenti, 1588), Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 29 (New York, 1997).
25.The Moderne Motet Anthologies: Four-Voice Motets from the Motteti del Fiore Series, Part I, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 9 (New York, 1998).
26.The Moderne Motet Anthologies: Four-Voice Motets from the Motteti del Fiore Series, Part II, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 10 (New York, 1998).
27.The Moderne Motet Anthologies: Five- and More-Voice Motets from the Motteti del Fiore Series, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 11 (New York: Garland, 1999).
28.The Moderne Motet Anthologies: Five- and More-Voice Motets from the Motteti del Fiore Series, Sixteenth-Century Motet, vol. 12 (New York: Garland, 2000).
Motets on Texts from the Old Testament, The New Josquin Edition, vol. 14, with Critical Commentary (134 pp.) (Utrecht: Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 2002).
1. "Two Manuscripts Written in Rome in the Early Sixteenth Century for the Use of the Papal Singers," at the Fortieth Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Washington, D.C., November, 1974.
2. "A New Look at Roman Archival Sources of the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries," at the Forty-Second Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Washington, D.C., November, 1976.
3. "From the Diary of a 16th-Century Papal Singer," at the Spring Meeting of the New England Chapter of the American Musicological Society, Harvard University, Boston, M.A., May, 1977.
4. "Guglielmo Gonzaga and the Castrati," at the Forty-Fourth Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Minneapolis, Minn., October, 1978.
5. "The Singers of the Papal Chapel and Liturgical Ceremonies in the Early Sixteenth Century: Some Documentary Evidence," at the Conference, "Rome in the Renaissance: The City and the Myth," University of New York, Binghamton, Binghamton,N.Y., October, 1979.
6. "Settings of the Tract Domine, non secundum peccata: Some Evidence of a Roman Motet Tradition," at the Spring Meeting of the New England Chapter of the American Musicological Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, M.A., April, 1980.
7. "A Look at the Papal Chapel of the Late 15th- and Early 16th Centuries," at the Forty-Sixth Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Denver, Col., 1980.
8. "A Note on the Biography of Juan del Encina," at the Thirty-fourth Annual Kentucky Foreign Language Conference, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., April, 1981.
9. "The Papal Singers and their Library," at the Sixteenth Annual International Conference on Medieval Studies, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Mi., May, 1981.
10."Jacob Obrecht and Lupus Hellinck: New Evidence and Speculations," at the Tenth Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Music, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, August, 1982.
11."Two Preludes and a Fantasia: Raphael's Portrait of Leo X; Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Music; the Genesis of the Medici Codex," at the Villa I Tatti, Florence, Italy, February, 1983; at Brandeis University, February, 1984; and at the University of New Hampshire, April, 1990.
12."Spanish Music and Musicians in Renaissance Rome, Particularly in the Papal Chapel," at the Eleventh Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Music, Oxford University, Oxford, England, July, 1983.
13."A Distressing Incident: Choirboys, Canons, and Homosexuality in Late Sixteenth-Century Italy," at the Fall Meeting of the New England Chapter of the American Musicological Society, Smith College, Northampton, M.A., October, 1983; and at the New England Renaissance Conference, Wellesley College, Wellesley, M.A., April, 1984.
14."Some Remarks on Papal Patronage, Singers, and Music in the Papal Chapel in the Early Sixteenth Century," at the Thirteenth Annual Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Music, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England, July, 1985; at theFifty-First Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Vancouver, Canada, November, 1985; at The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA., November, 1985; and at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA., November, 1985.
15."The Medici Stemma in Music: A Motet for Leo X," read at the symposium: Culture and Spectacle in Rome, 1400-1700, Mt. Holyoke College, April, 1986.
16."The Relationship of a Vatican Source of the Gloria of the Missa de Beata Virgine and Petrucci's Print," read at the 14th Congress of the International Musicological Society, Bologna, Italy, August-September, 1987.
17."Illibata dei Virgo nutrix and Josquin's Roman Style," read at the Fifty-Third Meeting of the American Musicological Society, New Orleans, October, 1987.
18."Liturgy, Ceremony, Musical Practice, and Repertory in the Sistine Chapel in the Early Sixteenth Century," read at the Erstes Internationales Symposion zur Geschichte der päpstlichen Kapelle, Heidelberg, West Germany, April 14-18, 1989.
19."An Aspect of the Mensural System in the Works of Josquin," read at the 17th Annual Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Music, University of Reading, Reading, England, July 21-24, 1989.
20."The Performance of Chant in the Renaissance and its Interactions with Polyphony," read at the 18th Annual Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Music, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, University of London, Egham, England, July 6-9, 1990, and at the Fifty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Oakland, California, November 9-11, 1990.
21."Questions and Frustrations Concerning Instrumental Ensemble Music in Sacred Contexts in the 16th Century," read at Le Concert des Voix et des Instruments àla Renaissance, XXXIV Colloque International, Centre D'Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance, Université François-Rabelais, Tours, France, July 1-11, 1991.
22."Life in the Papal Chapel," read at a meeting of the Harvard Seminar in Renaissance Studies, Harvard University, December 18, 1991, and at the Wesleyan Seminar in the Renaissance, Wesleyan University, November 16, 1992.
23."Historical and Practical Observations on the Performance of Renaissance Music," read at Cameron University, Lawton, Oklahoma, January 21, 1992; at The University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, January 23, 1992; and at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, January 24, 1992.
24."Ceremonies for Holy Week, Papal Commissions, and Madness [?] in Early Sixteenth-Century Rome," read at the Colloquium "Pageantry and Ceremony in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance," Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, May 1, 1992.
25."Guillaume-Gabriel Nivers and his Editions (and Recompositions) of Gregorian Chant "pour les dames religieuses," read at the Conference "Le Plain-chant et la Liturgie en France au XVIIe Siècle," held at the Abbaye de Royaumont and the Chateau de Versailles, France, October 24-26, 1992.
26."Conflicting Levels of Meaning and Understanding in Josquin's O admirabile commercium Motet Cycle," read at the Conference, "Hearing the Motet," held at Washington University, St. Louis, February 13-14, 1994.
27."Competence and Incompetence in the Papal Chapel in the Age of Palestrina," read at Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 1525-1594 IV Centenario, III Convegno Internazionale di Studi Palestrina e l'Europa, Palestrina, Italy, 6-9 October 1994; at the Sixtieth Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Minneapolis, 27-30 October 1994; at the Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, New York, NY, 30 March-2 April 1995.
28."Josquin's Red Nose: Happy and Boring Credos of the Late Fifteenth Century," read at The 23rd Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Music, Southampton, England, 5-9 July 1996.
29.“Music at the Cathedral of Bourges in the Time of Ockeghem: A Preliminary and Fragmentary Report,” read at the XLe Colloque International d’Études Humanistes: Johannes Ockeghem, Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance, Tours, 3-8 February 1997.
30.“Marriage, Divorce, The Aeneid: Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, and a Manuscript of Motets,” read at the International Conference: The Burgundian-Hapsburg Court Complex of Music Manuscripts (1500-1535) and the Workshop of Petrus Alamire, Leuven, Belgium, 25-28 November 1999, and in an expanded version at Smith College (Inaugural Chair Lecture), 25 March 2002, and as the Annual Karl Geiringer Lecture at the University of California, Santa Barbara, 28 April 2002.
31.“Clement VII and the Golden Age of the Papal Chapel,” read at the Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, Florence, Italy, 21-24 March 2000.
32.“Petrucci and the Problem of Planxit autem David,” read in my absence at the Convegno Internazionale di Studio Venezia 1501: Petrucci e la stampa musicale, Venice Italy, 10-13 October 2001.
33.“Resonances of Absalon fili mi in the 16th century,” read at the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Atlanta, Ga, 15-18 November 2001.
34.“A Year in the Life of the Papal Singers,” The Tomasso Lecture in Music, read at Tufts University, 31 March 2003.
35.“The Counter Reformation and the Singers of the Papal Chapel,” read at the XLVIe Colloque International d’Études Humanistes: La Papauté à la Renaissance held at the Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance, Tours, France, 30 June-4 July 2003.
36. “A Year in the Life of the Papal Choir: 1594,” read at the Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, Cambridge, UK, 7-9 April 2005.
37. “When the Papal Choir Really Mattered: Liturgy and Decorum in the Apostolic Palace in the Late 16th Century,” read at the Kolloquium: Liturgie und Zeremoniell am Papsthof der Renaissance, Münster, Germany, 19-21 September 2005.
Accepted for Publication
The History of the Papal Chapel, vol. 2: The 16th Century: From Julius II to the end of the Reign of Sixtus V. To be published by the Fondazione Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Centro di Studi Palestriniani.
Edition of Princess Ida as part of the series Gilbert and Sullivan, The Complete Operas: A Critical Edition. New York & Williamstown: Broude Brothers Limited. In Press.