Assess the strengths of Participant Observation in Social Research (16)
The main strength of using Participant Observation is that it usually yields extremely valid data compared to most, if not all, other research methods. There are numerous reasons for this. Firstly, PO involves the researcher participating in the day to day lives of the respondents, and it typically takes place over extended periods of time – sometimes over months or even years. This is also the only method where the researcher gets to observe people in their natural environment – seeing what people do rather than what they say they do.
An extended period of close contact allows the researcher to get in-depth data of a qualitative nature and he should be able to ‘walk in the shoes’ of the respondents – seeing the world through their eyes, gaining an empathetic understanding of how they see their world and how they interpret their own actions.
PO is also respondent–led (at least in the early, passive stages of the research) – rather than having a structure imposed on the research process from the beginning as is the case with more quantitative research using pre-written questionnaires. This means that the research is flexible – and this can sometimes yield unexpected findings – as when Venkatesh discovered that the crack gangs he researched were embedded in to the wider community and actually provided financial support for many in that community.
There is disagreement over whether covert or overt participant observation will yield more valid data – It may seem initially that respondents should act more naturally with covert research because they do not know a researcher is present so they should ‘be themselves’ but some Sociologists have suggested that participants may be more honest with a ‘professional stranger’ ( someone who is not actually part of the group) because they may not want to admit certain things to someone who they believe to be part of the group (as would be the case with covert research). Also with covert research the respondents may still be wary of a new member – or even exaggerate their behaviour to impress them – as could have been the case with Macintyre’s research into football hooligans.
Most sociologists argue that PO has very poor reliability because it is extremely difficult to repeat research done using this method due to the personal relationships struck up between researcher and respondents and also due to the time it takes to do this type of research. Reliability is especially poor with covert research as with overt one can at least use other methods or invite someone else along to verify one’s findings. With both methods, one is reliant upon the integrity of the researcher.
Representativeness is generally poor but intepretivists argue that it is worth losing this, along with reliability for the greater insight one gains using this most in depth method.
Practical concerns – this method is very time-consuming given the small amount of respondents covered. The research itself can last for many months or years, it can take several months to gain access to the respondents and even longer to analyse the reams of qualitative data one would collect during the research process. Sociologists would also find it difficult to gain funding. Covert research is especially problematic in terms of being able to gain access and not being able to record data as you go. Having said this one big practical advantage is that covert research may be the only practical way of gaining access to deviant and criminal groups.
Finally, turning to ethics PO is a potential ethical minefield – The close contact between researcher and research means there is considerable scope for harm to come to the respondents, and anonymity is impossible. Covert research is especially problematic because of the deceit involved and the fact that the researcher may get involved in illegal activities if involved in certain groups. HOWEVER… the information gleaned about illegal and immoral activities may outweigh the ethical problems of deceit etc. Interpretivists also argue that this is one of the few methods where respondents are treated as equals with the research and really get to speak for themselves.
In conclusion… the usefulness of any method depends on a range of different factors. If you are Positivist, you would reject the method because it is unscented, it lacks objectivity, and it is impossible to achieve the large samples necessary to find correlations and make generalisations. If however, you are more of an Interpretivist and you are concerned with validity and gaining an empathetic understanding, then Pobs is the ideal method to use. However, research must take place in the real world, and so practical as well as the ethical factors mentioned mean that this method may not always be possible, even if, for some Sociologists, it is the most useful.
Mark Scheme for Participant Observation Essay
(adapted from the AQA’s mark scheme for the same essay, AS sociology paper). The above essay should get into the top mark band!
|13-16||Sound, conceptually detailed knowledge of a range of relevant material on some of the problems of using participant observation (PO). Good understanding of the question and of the presented material.|
Appropriate material applied accurately to the issues raised by the question.
There will be some reasonable evaluation or analysis
|10-12||Broad or deep, accurate but incomplete knowledge of a range of problems of PO. Understands a number of significant aspects of the question; reasonable understanding of the presented material.|
Application of material is largely explicitly relevant to the question, though some material may be inadequately focused.
There will be some limited evaluation or analysis, eg of reasons for loss of objectivity in PO.
|7-9||Largely accurate knowledge but limited range and depth, eg a basic account of a few practical problems of using PO. Understands some aspects of the question; superficial understanding of the presented material.|
Applying listed material from the general topic area but with limited regard for its relevance to the issues raised by the question, or applying a narrow range of more relevant material.
Answers are unlikely to have any evaluation but may have some limited analysis within a largely descriptive account.
|4-6||Limited undeveloped knowledge, eg two to three insubstantial points about some features of PO. Understands only very limited aspects of the question; simplistic understanding of the presented material.|
Limited application of suitable material, and/or material often at a tangent to the demands of the question, eg drifting into advantages of using PO.
Very limited or no evaluation. Attempts at analysis, if any, are thin and disjointed
|1-3||Very limited knowledge, eg one to two very insubstantial points about PO or about methods in general. Very little/no understanding of the question and of the presented material.|
Significant errors, omissions, and/or incoherence in application of material.
No analysis or evaluation.
Participant Observation in Social Research
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The two research methods in sociology are Quantitative and Qualitative. Quantitative research is typically about numbers and graphs. The purpose is to predict and classify results and create graphs and models to explain the results. The researcher is detached from the subject matter and knows exactly what they are looking for. This type of research method can begin with a thesis and is best utilized towards the end of an experiment. Qualitative research is almost the opposite. It is about the expression of the results in words or visual aids. The researcher is heavily involved in the subject matter and only knows roughly what they are looking for. This research method is best utilized towards the beginning of an experiment because the intrinsic evolutionary quality about this method (Neill, 2007).
Both methods of research can be philosophically justified because they actually would work great hand in hand in one experiment. However, the practice of Qualitative research has a rich quality about it. This form of study gives leeway to freedom in experimentation. Not knowing exactly what you want to find out or learn in an experiment and a research process that is flexible is desirable to many researchers.
Two research methods in anthropology are Participant Observation and Survey Research. Participant Observation involves a researcher fully immersing themself in a culture for an extended amount of time in order to experience that culture “from within” (Donohue-Lynch, 2014). This requires the researcher to participate in daily activities to gain understanding of what it means to be a native. This type of research method allows the environment and subject matter to direct the method of research. Survey Research consists of surveys, interviews, and questionnaires that give insight to a large population. It is important to consider the audience when formulating a question. The researcher must consider culture, language, and age among many other things because the question can be easily misinterpreted. Interviewing the subjects ask direct questions and leads the experiment.
There are several methods of research in anthropology; however, Participant Observation appears to have some weight to its method. It seems that the best way to gain knowledge about a specific population would be to live like
they do rather than question them about it, or see it in the media, or reference history. The best way to lend yourself to discovery is by fully immersing yourself in it and letting go of control, let the data uncover itself through intrinsic experiences.
Each of the previously mentioned research methods is valuable to scientific study. Anthropological and Sociological research methods differ in that they aim to discover something different; they have different goals. Quantitative and Qualitative methods differ from each other in that the first utilizes a thesis and is better utilized at the beginning of an experiment and the latter does not have a clear set goal and is better utilized at the end of an experiment. However, they are the same in that they accurately examine a group of people or social group and are able to extrapolate information specific to their population through their research methods.
Participant Observation and Survey Research differ in that the first uses visual aides and immersing oneself into a culture to gain knowledge about the subject groups habits and experience what it is like to be part of that group by becoming a member and participating in daily activities, the latter focuses on questionnaires, verbal or written, in order to gain information about a specific group of people by communicating and directing them to provide information that you desire, the process is more rigid and requires more technology than participant observation. However, they share a likeness in that they both reach a specific group and are effective in retrieving desired information.
Donohue-Lynch, B. (2014). Cultural anthropology: Methods. Retrieved on September 5, 2014 from http://www.qvctc.commnet.edu/brian/methods.html Neill, J. (2007) Qualitative versus quantitative research: Key points in a classic debate. Retrieved on September 4, 2014 from http://wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html.