Groundwater Management Policy in Texas: Challenges and Recommendations, by Behnaz Bolhassani
Groundwater in the U.S. is managed through five different rules and regulations and each state employs a different policy based on its cultural, socio-economic, and political environment. During the past few years, California and Texas experience the same drought condition which lowered the water table in both states. The groundwater management in both states has evolved over time in different ways based on water demand and supply. This paper gives an overview of policies for groundwater management in Texas and California, and recommends alternative policies to address the challenges of current management strategies.
Invisible Government: Special Purpose Districts in Texas, by Cicely Kay
As more service providing has become the responsibility of local governments, the utilization and establishment of special purpose districts has become more widespread and important. These districts provide mechanisms and revenues to sustain development in fast-growing Texas. Special purpose districts are able to provide infrastructure and services to areas that cities or counties are unable or unwilling to service. However, as these special districts proliferate across the state, their growth has gone largely unchecked. While special purpose districts are important mechanisms to allow for growth in previously undeveloped areas, they are themselves a form of government. As such, citizen participation, transparency and accountability should be ensured during the creation and subsequent operation of these districts.
Local Damages, Local Control: The Case of the San Jacinto Waste Pits, by Andres Diamond-Ortiz
The benefit that Texas realizes by attracting companies through low regulation comes at the expense of protecting its natural resources and the citizens who rely on them. This is particularly evident in how Texas handles water quality issues. The state, in its aim to accommodate and attract business, has constructed a lax water quality regulatory and enforcement environment through the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), the state agency charged with monitoring water quality and assessing penalties for violations through the Texas Water Code. Fortunately, both the federal and local government can play a role in protecting rivers in Texas through federal regulation and the Texas Water Code itself. As evidence, this paper presents the case of the San Jacinto River Waste Pits, a pollution case that highlights the dangers posed by lax regulation of surface water quality.
Municipal Setting Designations: Good or Bad Water Policy in Texas, by Owen Chilongo
One of the issues that the precautionary principal tries to address is the prevention of irretrievable damage that can be made to the environment. With regards to groundwater supply, the loss of any significant amount of water from aquifers can have devastating effects at many levels, especially when that loss is caused by pollution and contamination. Some contaminated groundwater can be remediated, but the remediation process may take a long time, depending on the nature of the contaminant. At worst, some groundwater has been found to be impossible to remediate due to cost, and end up being completely written off. The focus of this paper is to examine if the intentional disregard of contaminated groundwater in Texas is good or bad for water policy planning and development. These banned contaminated groundwater sources are classified as Municipal Setting Designations (MSD) in the state of Texas.
Numbers Never Lie (Sometimes): A preliminary Investigation into the Role of Data in Water Policy Planning, by Michael O'Conner
This report investigates the data-driven process behind the creation of a Regional Water Plan within Texas. It focuses specifically on the modeling and monitoring of the major groundwater reservoir for the Texas Coast, the Gulf Coastal Plains Aquifer system (specifically the central portion), and a major river system for the Texas Coast, the Guadalupe/San Antonio River Basin.
Wastewater Reuse in Texas, by John Montgomery
Wastewater is on the cusp of a revolution in Texas, but there are crucial stumbling blocks that must be removed before it can succeed. Wastewater has a long history of reuse, and its current preeminence is driven by both external and internal pressures. The obstacles to broader wastewater adoption include systemic water ownership issues in the Texas legal system and resulting regulatory hurdles. This paper gives the history of wastewater reuse in Texas, explores the drivers for increased reuse, and provides solutions to promote reuse projects.
Water Marketing: designed for groundwater management in Texas, by Natalie Ballew
Water markets are increasingly recommended to efficiently allocate scarce water resources among all users. Water marketing is not a new concept for Texas, and there is plentiful analysis of the benefits and barriers to successful water marketing. Now is the prime time to use water marketing as a groundwater management tool in light of emerging tensions about allocation. As groundwater resources continue to play an important role in meeting future water demand and trends of rural to urban transfers increase, there needs to be some serious thought put into the way groundwater is managed through the current groundwater management strategy and how groundwater is addressed in future legislation and policy. This paper outlines the way market-based solutions can be used for groundwater management in Texas and what institutional changes need to take place to support these solutions.
Развяжи. Развяжи, пока не явились агенты безопасности. - Они не придут, - сказала она безучастно. Хейл побледнел.
- Что это .