Nanotechnology Research Papers Science Dictionary

Editorial & news

Nanopatterning technique records structural colour at low cost

Paper and pigments used to record text and images can degrade in decades, while long-lifetime forms of information storage, such as Blu-ray discs, can be made obsolete by technological changes. Now, Hao Jiang and colleagues at Simon Fraser University have developed a flexible, low-cost technique to print structural colour in a long-lived epoxy. The method can be used to make eye-readable records that should last for centuries.

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Nanotechnology Highlights of 2017
Nanotechnology is delighted to announce its Highlights of 2017, available here. Our annual selection represents the breadth and excellence of the work published in the journal. These articles include outstanding new research in Papers, and well-received Topical Reviews and Focus Collection articles. The articles were selected for the high praise received from referees, presentation of outstanding research and popularity with our online readership.

Nanotechnology Young Researcher Award
Dr Stephan Wirths, currently working at IBM Zurich, is the winner of the 2016 Young Researcher Award. The Editorial Board were particularly impressed with Stephan's outstanding contributions to semiconductor nanoscience and nanoelectronics research. To read a full interview with Stephan, and also see the two competition runners-up, please click here.

2016 Reviewer Award winners announced
As part of our commitment to recognise and reward peer review, IOP Publishing is delighted to announce our Outstanding Reviewer Awards winners for 2016. The best reviewers from each journal have been carefully selected by our Editors based on quality, quantity and timeliness of their reviews. Click here to see the list of winners for Nanotechnology.
Peer Review forms the backbone of scholarly communication, providing essential rigour and validation for published papers. IOP Publishing wishes to thank everyone that provides this valuable service, and especially recognise those who contribute exceptional reviews. Congratulations to all the winners!

Accepted manuscripts
Nanotechnology offers an accepted manuscript service, meaning your research can be downloaded and cited within 24 hours of acceptance. All articles accepted for publication in Nanotechnology will benefit from this service, however, authors are able to opt-out during the submission process should they want to. For further information on the benefits of our accepted manuscript service, visit iopscience.org/accepted-manuscripts for more information, or contact nano@iop.org.

Understand the impact of your research
We are pleased to announce a new partnership with Altmetric to provide a deeper understanding of how published research is being used. Altmetric gathers data from any online forum where published research is being discussed and displays it in an easy-to-read format on the article page on IOPscience.

Look for the Altmetric badge on any article to discover how the research is being used and shared around the world. Find out more about Altmetric and how the Altmetric Attention Score is calculated.


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Special Nanotechweb supplement
This special supplement of nanotechweb.org, sister website to the journal Nanotechnology, brings you some of the headline developments over the past few months in all of the different disciplines and applications using nanoscale science and technology.

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All-inkjet-printed flexible electronics fabrication on a polymer substrate by low-temperature high-resolution selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticles

Seung H Ko et al 2007 Nanotechnology18 345202

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All-printed electronics is the key technology to ultra-low-cost, large-area electronics. As a critical step in this direction, we demonstrate that laser sintering of inkjet-printed metal nanoparticles enables low-temperature metal deposition as well as high-resolution patterning to overcome the resolution limitation of the current inkjet direct writing processes. To demonstrate this process combined with the implementation of air-stable carboxylate-functionalized polythiophenes, high-resolution organic transistors were fabricated in ambient pressure and room temperature without utilizing any photolithographic steps or requiring a vacuum deposition process. Local thermal control of the laser sintering process could minimize the heat-affected zone and the thermal damage to the substrate and further enhance the resolution of the process. This local nanoparticle deposition and energy coupling enable an environmentally friendly and cost-effective process as well as a low-temperature manufacturing sequence to realize large-area, flexible electronics on polymer substrates.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/18/34/345202Cited byReferences

Characterization of enhanced antibacterial effects of novel silver nanoparticles

Siddhartha Shrivastava et al 2007 Nanotechnology18 225103

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In the present study, we report the preparation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 10–15 nm with increased stability and enhanced anti-bacterial potency. The morphology of the nanoparticles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles used in this study was found to be far more potent than that described in the earlier reports. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive organisms. Although bacterial cell lysis could be one of the reasons for the observed antibacterial property, nanoparticles also modulated the phosphotyrosine profile of putative bacterial peptides, which could thus affect bacterial signal transduction and inhibit the growth of the organisms.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/18/22/225103Cited byReferences

The following article is Open access

Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

M Kulkarni et al 2015 Nanotechnology26 062002

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Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO 2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO 2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO 2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/26/6/062002Cited byReferences

The following article is Open access

3D printed multiplexed electrospinning sources for large-scale production of aligned nanofiber mats with small diameter spread

Erika García-López et al 2017 Nanotechnology28 425302

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We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of novel, low-cost, and modular miniaturized nanofiber electrospinning sources for the scalable production of non-woven aligned nanofiber mats with low diameter variation. The devices are monolithic arrays of electrospinning emitters made via stereolithography; the emitters are arranged so each element has an independent line of sight to a rotating collector surface. Linear and zigzag emitter packing were evaluated using a PEO solution with the aim of maximizing the throughput of nanofibers with the smallest diameter and narrowest distribution. Current versus flowrate characterization of the devices showed that for a given flowrate a zigzag array produces more current per emitter than a linear array of the same emitter pitch and array size. In addition, the data demonstrate that larger and denser arrays have a net gain in flow rate per unit of active length. Visual inspection of the devices suggests uniform operation in devices with as many as 17 emitters with 300 μm inner diameter and 1.5 mm emitter gap. Well-aligned nanofiber mats were collected on a rotating drum and characterized; the 17-emitter device produced the same narrow nanofiber distribution (∼81 nm average diameter, ∼17 nm standard deviation) for all tested flow rates, which is strikingly different to the performance shown by 1-emitter sources where the average fiber diameter significantly increased and the statistics notably widened when the flowrate increases. Therefore, the data demonstrate that massively multiplexing the emitters is a viable approach to greatly increase the throughput of non-woven aligned nanofiber mats without sacrificing the statistics of the nanofibers generated. The production of dry nanofibers by the 17-emitter array is estimated at 33.0 mg min −1 (1.38 mg min −1 per mm of active length), which compares favorably with the reported multiplexed electrospinning arrays with emitters distributed along a line.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa86ccReferences

The following article is Open access

Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

Evgeniya Goldman et al 2017 Nanotechnology28 43LT01

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Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa8a3dCited byReferences

The following article is Open access

Stable and durable CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells at ambient conditions

Nagalingam Rajamanickam et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 235404

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Degradation of metal−organic halide perovskites when exposed to ambient conditions is a crucial issue that needs to be addressed for commercial viability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, a concept of encapsulating CH 3NH 3PbI 3 perovskite crystals with a multi-functional graphene–polyaniline (PANI) composite coating to protect the perovskite against degradation from moisture, oxygen and UV light is presented. Hole-conducting polymers containing 2D layered sheet materials are presented here as multi-functional materials with oxygen and moisture impermeability. Specific studies involving PANI and graphene composites as coatings for perovskite crystals exhibited resistance to moisture and oxygen under continued exposure to UV and visible light. Most importantly, no perovskite degradation was observed even after 96 h of exposure of the PSCs to extremely high humidity (99% relative humidity). Our observations and results on perovskite protection with graphene/conducting polymer composites open up opportunities for glove-box-free and atmospheric processing of PSCs.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/23/235404Cited byReferences

Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

Cameron J Shearer et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 125704

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Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/12/125704Cited byReferences

The following article is Open access

Atomic layer deposited oxide films as protective interface layers for integrated graphene transfer

A Cabrero-Vilatela et al 2017 Nanotechnology28 485201

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The transfer of chemical vapour deposited graphene from its parent growth catalyst has become a bottleneck for many of its emerging applications. The sacrificial polymer layers that are typically deposited onto graphene for mechanical support during transfer are challenging to remove completely and hence leave graphene and subsequent device interfaces contaminated. Here, we report on the use of atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxide films as protective interface and support layers during graphene transfer. The method avoids any direct contact of the graphene with polymers and through the use of thicker ALD layers (≥100 nm), polymers can be eliminated from the transfer-process altogether. The ALD film can be kept as a functional device layer, facilitating integrated device manufacturing. We demonstrate back-gated field effect devices based on single-layer graphene transferred with a protective Al 2O 3 film onto SiO 2 that show significantly reduced charge trap and residual carrier densities. We critically discuss the advantages and challenges of processing graphene/ALD bilayer structures.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa940cReferences

Controllable growth of monolayer MoS2 by chemical vapor deposition via close MoO2 precursor for electrical and optical applications

Yong Xie et al 2017 Nanotechnology28 084001

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MoO 2 is used as a new source material for the growth of large area and high optical quality monolayer MoS 2. However, a systematic study of the growth parameters is still missing and large-area growth of discreet single crystals is still challenging. Hereby, we report the shape evolution of monolayer growth of MoS 2 and develop a methodology to achieve centimeter-scaled discrete MoS 2 by adopting MoO 2 as Mo source material in an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Our results indicate the growth of monolayer MoS 2 could benefit from the precise control of the introduction time of sulfur and the S/MoO 2 ratio in experiments. Micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectra confirm the properties of the material. E-beam lithography was utilized to make contact with the as-grown MoS 2 located at the selective area. The electrical properties of MoS 2 with different morphologies were compared. In the end, the persistent photoconductivity properties of monolayer MoS 2 were emphasized and the underlying mechanism was proposed. These studies demonstrate a better understanding of the growth and application of MoS 2-based 2D materials.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa5439Cited byReferences

Heterogeneous electrochemical CO2 reduction using nonmetallic carbon-based catalysts: current status and future challenges

Tao Ma et al 2017 Nanotechnology28 472001

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Electrochemical CO 2 reduction (ECR) offers an important pathway for renewable energy storage and fuels production. It still remains a challenge in designing highly selective, energy-efficient, robust, and cost-effective electrocatalysts to facilitate this kinetically slow process. Metal-free carbon-based materials have features of low cost, good electrical conductivity, renewability, diverse structure, and tunability in surface chemistry. In particular, surface functionalization of carbon materials, for example by doping with heteroatoms, enables access to unique active site architectures for CO 2 adsorption and activation, leading to interesting catalytic performances in ECR. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of this category of metal-free catalysts for ECR, providing discussions and/or comparisons among different nonmetallic catalysts, and also possible origin of catalytic activity. Fundamentals and some future challenges are also described.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa8f6fReferences

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Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

Cameron J Shearer et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 125704

View abstractView articlePDF

Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/12/125704Cited byReferences

Van der Waals stacks of few-layer h-AlN with graphene: an ab initio study of structural, interaction and electronic properties

Renato B dos Santos et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 145601

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Graphite-like hexagonal AlN (h-AlN) multilayers have been experimentally manifested and theoretically modeled. The development of any functional electronics applications of h-AlN would most certainly require its integration with other layered materials, particularly graphene. Here, by employing vdW-corrected density functional theory calculations, we investigate structure, interaction energy, and electronic properties of van der Waals stacking sequences of few-layer h-AlN with graphene. We find that the presence of a template such as graphene induces enough interlayer charge separation in h-AlN, favoring a graphite-like stacking formation. We also find that the interface dipole, calculated per unit cell of the stacks, tends to increase with the number of stacked layers of h-AlN and graphene.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/14/145601Cited byReferences

Flexible, transparent and ultra-broadband photodetector based on large-area WSe2 film for wearable devices

Zhaoqiang Zheng et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 225501

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Although two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted considerable research interest for use in the development of innovative wearable optoelectronic systems, the integrated optoelectronic performance of 2D materials photodetectors, including flexibility, transparency, broadband response and stability in air, remains quite low to date. Here, we demonstrate a flexible, transparent, high-stability and ultra-broadband photodetector made using large-area and highly-crystalline WSe 2 films that were prepared by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Benefiting from the 2D physics of WSe 2 films, this device exhibits excellent average transparency of 72% in the visible range and superior photoresponse characteristics, including an ultra-broadband detection spectral range from 370 to 1064 nm, reversible photoresponsivity approaching 0.92 A W −1, external quantum efficiency of up to 180% and a relatively fast response time of 0.9 s. The fabricated photodetector also demonstrates outstanding mechanical flexibility and durability in air. Also, because of the wide compatibility of the PLD-grown WSe 2 film, we can fabricate various photodetectors on multiple flexible or rigid substrates, and all these devices will exhibit distinctive switching behavior and superior responsivity. These indicate a possible new strategy for the design and integration of flexible, transparent and broadband photodetectors based on large-area WSe 2 films, with great potential for practical applications in the wearable optoelectronic devices.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/22/225501Cited byReferences

Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors

Ming-Wei Lin et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 165203

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Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS 2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS 2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS 2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (∼3.6 nm) and 10 layers (∼7 nm), with ∼70 cm 2 V −1 s −1 measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron–phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS 2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/16/165203Cited byReferences

All-inorganic colloidal silicon nanocrystals—surface modification by boron and phosphorus co-doping

Minoru Fujii et al 2016 Nanotechnology27 262001

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Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) with extremely heavily B- and P-doped shells are developed and their structural and optical properties are studied. Unlike conventional Si-NCs without doping, B and P co-doped Si-NCs are dispersible in alcohol and water perfectly without any surface functionalization processes. The colloidal solution of co-doped Si-NCs is very stable and no precipitates are observed for more than 5 years. The co-doped colloidal Si-NCs exhibit size-controllable photoluminescence (PL) in a very wide energy range covering 0.85 to 1.85 eV. In this paper, we summarize the structural and optical properties of co-doped Si-NCs and demonstrate that they are a new type of environmentally-friendly nano-light emitter working in aqueous environments in the visible and near infrared (NIR) ranges.

https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/26/262001Cited byReferences

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Efficient synthesis of tungsten oxide hydrate-based nanocomposites for applications in bifunctional electrochromic-energy storage devices

Xueting Chang et al 2018 Nanotechnology29 185707

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In this work, we realized the large-scale synthesis of WO 3 · H 2O nanoflakes (NFs), g-C 3N 4/WO 3 · H 2O nanocomposite (NC) and graphene (G)/WO 3 · H 2O NC via a sonochemical process with tungsten salt as the precursor, g-C 3N 4 or G sheets as the supports, and distilled water as the solvent. Both the g-C 3N 4/WO 3 · H 2O NC and G/WO 3 · H 2O NC exhibited much better electrochromic (EC) performance (higher coloration efficiencies and faster response times) than that of the WO 3 · H 2O NFs. Using the WO 3 · H 2O-based materials as electrode materials, EC batteries that integrate the energy storage and EC functions in one device have been assembled. The energy status of the EC batteries could be visually indicated by the reversible color variations. Compared with the plain WO 3 · H 2O-based EC batteries, the NC-based EC batteries possessed a lower color contrast between the charged and discharged conditions but much longer discharge durations. The EC batteries could be quickly charged in a few seconds by adding H 2O 2, and the charged batteries exhibited significantly-enhanced discharging durations in comparison with the initial ones. The g-C 3N 4/WO 3 · H 2O NC-EC batteries charged by a small amount of H 2O 2 could produce a long discharging duration up to 760 min.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aab07bReferences

The following article is Open access

A new route to gold nanoflowers

Ferenc Liebig et al 2018 Nanotechnology29 185603

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Catanionic vesicles spontaneously formed by mixing the anionic surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as a reducing medium to produce gold clusters, which are embedded and well-ordered into the template phase. The gold clusters can be used as seeds in the growth process that follows by adding ascorbic acid as a mild reducing component. When the ascorbic acid was added very slowly in an ice bath round-edged gold nanoflowers were produced. When the same experiments were performed at room temperature in the presence of Ag + ions, sharp-edged nanoflowers could be synthesized. The mechanism of nanoparticle formation can be understood to be a non-diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process of preordered gold nanoparticles embedded in catanionic vesicle fragments. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments show an excellent enhancement factor of 1.7 · 10 5 for the nanoflowers deposited on a silicon wafer.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aaaffdReferences

Perfect-absorption graphene metamaterials for surface-enhanced molecular fingerprint spectroscopy

Xiangdong Guo et al 2018 Nanotechnology29 184004

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Graphene plasmon with extremely strong light confinement and tunable resonance frequency represents a promising surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) sensing platform. However, plasmonic absorption is relatively weak (approximately 1%–9%) in monolayer graphene nanostructures, which would limit its sensitivity. Here, we theoretically propose a hybrid plasmon-metamaterial structure that can realize perfect absorption in graphene with a low carrier mobility of 1000 cm 2 V −1 s −1. This structure combines a gold reflector and a gold grating to the graphene plasmon structures, which introduce interference effect and the lightning-rod effect, respectively, and largely enhance the coupling of light to graphene. The vibration signal of trace molecules can be enhanced up to 2000-fold at the hotspot of the perfect-absorption structure, enabling the SEIRA sensing to reach the molecular level. This hybrid metal-graphene structure provides a novel path to generate high sensitivity in nanoscale molecular recognition for numerous applications.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aab077References

Fabrication of ultrathin multilayered superomniphobic nanocoatings by liquid flame spray, atomic layer deposition, and silanization

Miika Sorvali et al 2018 Nanotechnology29 185708

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Superomniphobic, i.e. liquid-repellent, surfaces have been an interesting area of research during recent years due to their various potential applications. However, producing such surfaces, especially on hard and resilient substrates like stainless steel, still remains challenging. We present a stepwise fabrication process of a multilayered nanocoating on a stainless steel substrate, consisting of a nanoparticle layer, a nanofilm, and a layer of silane molecules. Liquid flame spray was used to deposit a TiO 2 nanoparticle layer as the bottom layer for producing a suitable surface structure. The interstitial Al 2O 3 nanofilm, fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD), stabilized the nanoparticle layer, and the topmost fluorosilane layer lowered the surface energy of the coating for enhanced omniphobicity. The coating was characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) measurements, and microscratch testing. The widely recognized requirements for superrepellency, i.e. CA > 150° and SA < 10°, were achieved for deioinized water, diiodomethane, and ethylene glycol. The mechanical stability of the coating could be varied by tuning the thickness of the ALD layer at the expense of repellency. To our knowledge, this is the thinnest superomniphobic coating reported so far, with the average thickness of about 70 nm.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aaaffcReferences

Ferroelectric nanoparticle-embedded sponge structure triboelectric generators

Daehoon Park et al 2018 Nanotechnology29 185402

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We report high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) employing ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a sponge structure. The ferroelectric BaTiO 3 NPs inside the sponge structure play an important role in increasing surface charge density by polarized spontaneous dipoles, enabling the packaging of TENGs even with a minimal separation gap. Since the friction surfaces are encapsulated in the packaged device structure, it suffers negligible performance degradation even at a high relative humidity of 80%. The TENGs also demonstrated excellent mechanical durability due to the elasticity and flexibility of the sponge structure. Consequently, the TENGs can reliably harvest energy even under harsh conditions. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, and reliable way to fabricate compact and packaged TENGs for potential applications in wearable energy-harvesting devices.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aaafa3References

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