Chapter 14 Key terms
chapter 14 key terms
when: early 7th century C.E.
he followed his older brother into a monastery
he defied the empire that ordered that subjects were forbidden to travel beyond Chinese borders
destination was India
wanted to study with knowledgeable Buddhist teachers and sages to learn about Buddhism from the purest sources.
his guide abandoned him in the Gobi desert
made his way to the oasis town of Turpan
the buddhist ruler gave him supplied to support his mission
crossed three high mountain ranges
faced attacks by bandits, as well as confrontations with demons, dragons, and evil spirits.
arrived in india (in 630) and stayed for 12+ years
when he returned home, even though he violated the ban on traveling, he received a hero’s welcome and an audience with the emperor.
translated Buddhist treatises into Chinese and clarifying their doctrines
who: yang zian (first emperor ) and Sui Yagndi (second emperor)
military expeditions into central Asia and southern China
by 589 the house of Sui ruled all of China
placed enourmous demands on their dubjects in the course of buildinga strong, centralized government
ordered the construction of palaces and granaries
dispatched military forces to central Asia and Korea levied high taxes, and demanded compulsotory labor services.
when: 589-618 C.E.
who: Tang Taizong
after the seath of Sui Yangdi, a rebel leader proclaimed himself as emperor
he was ruthless
created extensive networks of transportation and communications
they allocated land according to needs
had a bureacuracy of merit and civil service exams
when: 618-907 C.E.
when: mid 8th century
casual and careless elading brought the dynasty to a crisis and it never recovered
An Lushan, a foremost military commander mounted a rebellion and captured the capital at Chang’an (755)
short lived because he was murdered by a soldier (757)
rebellion let the dynasty in a weakened state
tang commanders couldn’t defeat rebellious forces so they callled in help from the Uighurs
Uighurs demanded the right to the capitals after their help
tang never regained control of affairs after the crisis
imperial armies couldn't resist Turkish peoples and eventually the last Tang emperor abdicated his throne and the dynasty came to an end.
who: the first Song emperor
when: he reigned from 960-976 C.E.
began his career as a junior military offifcer serving one of the most powerful warlords in northern China
reputation for honesty and effectiveness
his army subjected the warlords to their authority and consolidated Song control thorughout China
persuaded his generals to retire honorably to a life of leisure
organized a centralized administration that placed military forces under tight supervision
regarded all state officials as servants of the imperial government
reward these officials handsomely
expanded the bureaucracy based on merit by creating more opportunities for individuals to seek a Confucian education and take civil service exams
provided generous salaries for those who qualified for government appointments
placed civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces.
they had financial problems and the high salaries devoured surplus
Song dynasty moved to the south
development of fast ripening crops increased food supplies
found in Vietnam when they encountered strains of fast-ripening rice that enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year
once it was introduced to fields in southern China, fast ripening rice quickly resulted in an expanding supply of food.
new agricultural techniques
heavy iron plows
enriched the soil with manure and composted organic matter
extensive irrigation systems
extended cultivation to difficult terrains
expanded china’s agricultural potential
involved tightly wrapping girls feet with strips of cloth that prevented natural growth of bones and resulted in malformed, curved feet.
the girs could not walk easily or naturally
needed canes to walk
never became universal but wealthy families and some peasant families did it to enhance their attractiveness and gain control over the girls’ behavior.
similar to veiling women in Mediterranean and Muslim lands
diffused rapidly andspread to Abbasid craft workers
chinese exported vast quantities of porcelain
fine porcelin has come to generally be known as chinaware
increased ten times from ninth to twelfth centuries
increased supply of iron and steel went into weaponry and agricultural tools
Daoist alchemists discovered how to make gunpowder during the Tang dynasty
limited military effectiveness
diffused through Eurasia
made it possible to produce texts quickly, cheaply, and in huge quantities
developed from wood blocks to movable type
chinese seafarers sailed ships fastened with iron nails, waterproofed with oils, furnished wiht watertight bulkheads, driven by canvas and bamboo sails, steered by rudders, and navigated with the aid of the “south pointed needle” aka the magnetic compass
magnetic compass soon became the common property of mariners throughout the Indian Ocean basin
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Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 14 Key terms" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 09 Aug. 2015. Web. 10 Mar. 2018. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/world-history/outlines/chapter-14-key-terms/>.
WHAT THIS HANDOUT IS ABOUT
This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.
Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.
WHAT IS A THESIS STATEMENT?
A thesis statement:
- tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
- is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
- directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
- makes a claim that others might dispute.
- is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.
If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively.
HOW DO I GET A THESIS?
A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis,” a basic or main idea, an argument that you think you can support with evidence but that may need adjustment along the way.
Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement.
HOW DO I KNOW IF MY THESIS IS STRONG?
If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis,ask yourself the following:
- Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question.
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose?If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is, “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
- Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.
Suppose you are taking a course on 19th-century America, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War. You turn on the computer and type out the following:
- The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different.
This weak thesis restates the question without providing any additional information. You will expand on this new information in the body of the essay, but it is important that the reader know where you are heading. A reader of this weak thesis might think, “What reasons? How are they the same? How are they different?” Ask yourself these same questions and begin to compare Northern and Southern attitudes (perhaps you first think, “The South believed slavery was right, and the North thought slavery was wrong”). Now, push your comparison toward an interpretation—why did one side think slavery was right and the other side think it was wrong? You look again at the evidence, and you decide that you are going to argue that the North believed slavery was immoral while the South believed it upheld the Southern way of life. You write:
- While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions.
Now you have a working thesis! Included in this working thesis is a reason for the war and some idea of how the two sides disagreed over this reason. As you write the essay, you will probably begin to characterize these differences more precisely, and your working thesis may start to seem too vague. Maybe you decide that both sides fought for moral reasons, and that they just focused on different moral issues. You end up revising the working thesis into a final thesis that really captures the argument in your paper:
- While both Northerners and Southerners believed they fought against tyranny and oppression, Northerners focused on the oppression of slaves while Southerners defended their own right to self-government.
Compare this to the original weak thesis. This final thesis presents a way of interpreting evidence that illuminates the significance of the question. Keep in mind that this is one of many possible interpretations of the Civil War—it is not the one and only right answer to the question. There isn’t one right answer; there are only strong and weak thesis statements and strong and weak uses of evidence.
Let’s look at another example. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:
- Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.
Why is this thesis weak? Think about what the reader would expect from the essay that follows: you will most likely provide a general, appreciative summary of Twain’s novel. The question did not ask you to summarize; it asked you to analyze. Your professor is probably not interested in your opinion of the novel; instead, she wants you to think about why it’s such a great novel—what do Huck’s adventures tell us about life, about America, about coming of age, about race relations, etc.? First, the question asks you to pick an aspect of the novel that you think is important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:
- In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
Here’s a working thesis with potential: you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation; however, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal. Your reader is intrigued, but is still thinking, “So what? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?” Perhaps you are not sure yet, either. That’s fine—begin to work on comparing scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions. Eventually you will be able to clarify for yourself, and then for the reader, why this contrast matters. After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:
- Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.
This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.
SPECIAL THANKS TO: Mr. Brynes of Leonardtown High School